In a significant legal victory, Cargill Inc. has been cleared of paying approximately $20 million in damages for its early response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The ruling, delivered by Canadian arbitrator James Casey, underscores the complexities and challenges faced by companies during the initial outbreak of the virus.

Background of the Case

The case centered around Cargill’s High River beef processing plant, which became a COVID-19 hotspot in the early months of the pandemic. According to a report from the Calgary Herald, the outbreak at the plant was linked to three deaths and 951 confirmed cases of COVID-19. The individuals who lost their lives included two employees, Hiep Bui and Benito Quesada, and Armando Sallegue, the father of a Cargill employee.

For the past four years, the United Food and Commercial Workers Local (UFCW) No. 401 union had been advocating for the victims and their families, seeking justice and compensation for what they argued was a failure on Cargill’s part to provide a safe working environment.

Arbitrator’s Decision

In his June decision, arbitrator James Casey highlighted the rapidly evolving nature of the pandemic response in early 2020. He noted that public health authorities, governments, employers, and unions were all grappling with how best to manage the unprecedented public health crisis.

“Public health authorities, governments, employers and unions were all struggling with determining the best way to respond to this public health crisis,” Casey wrote. “Advice from public health authorities and governments was rapidly changing and evolving sometimes on a daily basis.”

Casey further elaborated on the arbitration process that began in April 2023, acknowledging that the understanding of safety measures such as masking, physical and social distancing, and isolation had evolved significantly since the early days of the pandemic. This evolution in understanding continued to influence the arbitration discussions.

Cargill’s Critical Role

At the onset of the pandemic, Cargill, along with other food processors, was designated as critical infrastructure in both Canada and the United States. This designation meant that despite the rising health risks, these facilities were ordered to remain operational to ensure the continuity of food supply chains.

The union argued that Cargill had failed to maintain a safe working environment during this critical period. However, Casey’s decision emphasized that Cargill’s actions were based on the knowledge available from late February to April 2020.

“The conclusions that Cargill took appropriate action to protect the safety of employees during this period are based on what Cargill knew and should have known during the relevant time frame,” Casey wrote. “It is not appropriate to second-guess Cargill’s decision based on current scientific knowledge about COVID and current regulatory advice.”

Union’s Response

The UFCW Local 401 expressed disappointment with the arbitrator’s ruling but acknowledged the complexities highlighted in the decision. The union emphasized that their fight was driven by a commitment to ensuring worker safety and holding employers accountable during unprecedented crises.

“We fought for justice for our members who suffered and lost their lives during this outbreak,” a union spokesperson said. “While we are disappointed with the outcome, we recognize the challenges faced by all parties during the early days of the pandemic.”

Cargill’s Commitment to Safety

In response to the ruling, Cargill reiterated its commitment to employee safety and highlighted the measures it implemented during the pandemic. The company stated that it had followed guidance from public health authorities and had taken significant steps to protect its workforce.

“We are relieved by the arbitrator’s decision, which recognizes the efforts we made to safeguard our employees during an incredibly challenging time,” a Cargill representative said. “We remain committed to the health and safety of our team members and will continue to follow best practices and guidance from health authorities.”

Implications of the Ruling

The ruling sets a precedent for how companies’ responses to the COVID-19 pandemic may be evaluated in future legal contexts. It underscores the importance of considering the knowledge and circumstances at the time of decision-making rather than applying hindsight based on current understandings.

Legal experts note that this decision could influence other cases where companies are being scrutinized for their pandemic responses. The emphasis on rapidly changing public health guidance and the challenges faced by essential industries during the pandemic will likely be critical factors in such evaluations.


The arbitrator’s decision to clear Cargill of liability for its early pandemic response highlights the complexities of managing a public health crisis with limited and rapidly changing information. While the union’s efforts to seek justice for the affected workers and their families are commendable, the ruling recognizes the constraints and challenges faced by companies designated as critical infrastructure during unprecedented times.

As the world continues to navigate the ongoing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, this case serves as a reminder of the importance of adaptability, collaboration, and informed decision-making in the face of evolving threats.

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